This article outlines the current understanding of the effects CL wear may have on the conjunctiva. These include hyperaemia, staining, indentation, epithelial flaps, lid parallel conjunctival folds, lid wiper epitheliopathy and papillary conjunctivitis. | more
The range of vitreoretinal surgical indications has grown because of the increased availability of finer gauged instrumentation with improved safety profiles. This module will explore each of the surgical techniques which are used to treat the more severe conditions.
This CET serves to remind the optometrist and contact lens optician of the general procedures involved when examining the anterior segment with a slit lamp | more
The problem of dry eye in contact lens (CL) wear remains a significant challenge in modern practice. CL wearers commonly complain of ‘dryness, burning or stinging’ during wear, leading to CL intolerance as a direct consequence of dry eye. This CET module discusses management of dry eye conditions associated with contact lens wear.
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Chris Steele reviews the referral of patients, clinical management and current therapeutic options for RVO | more
With most patients experiencing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) over the course of their life, it is something all optometrists are familiar with. Whilst the majority of PVDs are uncomplicated, some can result in secondary complications that can have a serious impact on vision. This article reviews the process of PVD, along with the associated secondary complications that can occur. | more
This article provides an evidence-based review of assessment methods to effectively establish the risk of anterior chamber angle closure. Interactive and non-interactive points for optometrists or dispensing opticians. | more
The aim of this article is to look at current trends in occupational progressive lenses, and how they can be used as an important dispensing tool to meet the needs of the modern presbyope as high users of technology. | more
Peter Black examines the issues that have led to infection prevention and control rising up the optometric agenda in recent years. In defining infection and infection control, it is necessary to understand the basics of microbiology, the types of organism that can cause infection, and how infection is transmitted.